Management Models, Values & Principles?

As part of the preparations for the Stoos Gathering I am collecting models, values and principles for management. Maybe you can help me?

There is of course my own Management 3.0 model:

  1. Energize People
  2. Empower Teams
  3. Align Constraints
  4. Develop Competence
  5. Grow Structure
  6. Improve Everything

And there are the principles of Steve Denning’s Radical Management:

  1. Radical-managementThe goal of work is to delight clients.
  2. Work is conducted in self-organizing teams.
  3. Teams operate in client-driven iterations.
  4. Each iteration delivers value to clients.
  5. Managers foster radical transparency.
  6. Managers nurture continuous self-improvement.
  7. Managers communicating interactively through stories, questions and conversations.

Of course, several famous management experts have offered their own models. Henry Mintzberg described his six-plane model:

  1. ManagingAction
    (doing and dealing)
  2. People
    (leading and linking)
  3. Information
    (communication and controlling)

Gary Hamel came up with his five principles:

  1. Future-of-managementLife (variety)
  2. Markets (flexibility)
  3. Democracy (activism)
  4. Faith (meaning)
  5. Cities (serendipity)

And Toyota offered a very simple set in the Toyota Way:

  1. Respect for people
  2. Continuous improvement

But let’s not rule out the greatest management thinkers of the 20th century. For example, Peter F. Drucker said there are five tasks for managers:

  1. ManagementSet objectives
  2. Organize
  3. Motivate and communicate
  4. Measure
  5. Develop people

And W. Edwards Deming’s 14 principles were described in Out of the Crisis:

  1. Out-of-the-crisisCreate constancy of purpose.
  2. Adopt the new philosophy.
  3. Cease dependence on inspection.
  4. Minimize total cost.
  5. Improve constantly.
  6. Institute training.
  7. Institute leadership.
  8. Drive out fear.
  9. Break down barriers.
  10. Eliminate targets.
  11. Eliminate management by objective.
  12. Develop pride of workmanship.
  13. Institute self-improvement.
  14. The transformation is everybody's job.

Did I forget some important management models, values or principles? Do you know any others I should check out before discussing how to accelerate global management warming?

(Jurgen Appelo is author of Management 3.0, a best-selling management book for Agile developers. It has a picture of a monster in it.)

Related Posts
free book
“How to Change the World”
  • Julio Cesar

    Well, I´d like to recomend to you visit where George Hall shows a five stage culture. A piece of his work: “At Stage one, people form criminal clusters, such as gangs and prisons, where the theme is “life sucks,” and people act out in despairingly hostile ways. only about two percent of employed tribes are at stage one. Stage two, the dominant culture in 25 percent of workplace tribes where people say, in effect, “my life sucks,” exhibit behavior of apathetic victims. at Stage three, which is the dominant culture in almost half of U.S. workplace tribes, the theme is “i’m great.” thipersonally competitive cultural stage produces only limited innovation and almost no collaboration. Stage Four represents 22 percent of tribal cultures, and there the theme is “we’re great.” Stage Four is the zone of tribal Leadership where the leader upgrades the tribe as the tribe embraces the leader. Stage Four is the beginning of high performance. the theme of Stage five, the culture of two percent of the workforce tribes, is that “life is great” and people focus on realizing potential by making history. teams at Stage Five have produced remarkable innovations, leading their industries and the economy.”
    I´m waiting amazon deliver your book here in Brazil. Do you have plans to come here in 2012?
    Julio Caldas

  • Flowchainsensei

    I’m assuming you’ve had time to read and digest the Marshall Model by now?
    – Bob

  • Peter Stevens

    Hi Jurgen, super article! To this list I would add both Scrum and Kanban as management frameworks to this list.
    Scrum: a simple team-based framework for solving complex problems. I would summarize its core tenets as follows:
    * Inspect & Adapt
    * Trust the Team Solves the Problem
    * Deliver value incrementally and regularly
    * Commitment, Focus, Openness, Respect, Courage.
    * Start with what you do now.
    * Respect people (and in particular their current roles and identity).
    * Agree to improve.
    * Make policy visible.
    David Anderson defines his “Recipe for Success” as Focus on Quality, Reduce Work-in-Progress, Deliver often, Balance Demand against Capacity, Prioritize, and Reduce Variability.
    Both Scrum and Kanban rely on Information Radiators to visualize the state of work in progress and encourage communication and collaboration.

  • Niels Pflaeging

    Hi Jurgen,
    I thought, as you have Franz Roosli from the BBRT on board at the Stoos gathering, that you were familiar with the substantial work of the Beyond Budgeting Round Table ( The BBRT started its research in England in 1998 and until 2002 had formulated a set of 12 guiding “principles” for an “alternative to command-and-control management”. Put differently: For a far better organizational model than tayloristic management – apt for complex environments and for Theory Y human beings.
    The principles of the model were formulated in a slightly different way than the version that follows (using full sentences), but we sharpened them a little further a couple of years ago and now also call them the “BetaCodex”. The following set of 12 are the principles, or “laws” of the BetaCodex (formerly “the Beyond Budgeting model”, as opposed to the AlphaCodex (command-and-control/management):
    §1 Freedom to act: Connectedness, not Dependency
    §2 Responsibility: Cells, not Departments
    §3 Governance: Leadership, not Management
    §4 Performance climate: Result culture, not Duty fulfillment
    §5 Success: Fit, not Maximization
    §6 Transparency: Intelligence flow, not Power accumulation
    §7 Orientation: Relative Targets, not Top-down prescription
    §8 Recognition: Sharing, not Incentives
    §9 Mental presence: Preparedness, not Planning
    §10 Decision-making: Consequence, not Bureaucracy
    §11 Resource usage: Purpose-driven, not Status-oriented
    §12 Coordination: Market dynamics, not Commands
    You can read more about all this here:
    Regards, Niels

  • VFQDev

    My suggestion is the principles of John Bogle (founder of the Vanguard Group), even though they are a comment on his sector, they apply wider.
    Too much cost, not enough value
    Too much speculation, not enough investment
    Too much complexity, not enough simplicity
    Too much counting, not enough trust
    Too much business conduct, not enough professional conduct
    Too much salesmanship, not enough stewardship
    Too much management, not enough leadership
    Too much focus on things, not enough focus on committment
    Too many 21st century values, not enough 18th century values (Puritan gift, interesting book on this)
    Too much “success”, not enough character (success can only be measured in what we contribute to others)

  • bartek

    What do you think about three laws of mastery by Dan Pink:
    – Autonomy is the desire to direct our own lives.
    – Mastery is the urge to get better and better at something that matters.
    – Purpose is the yearning to do what we do in the service of something larger than ourselves
    Those of managers which are change agents need a lot of motivation. Above prainciples may be helpful.

  • Jurgen Appelo

    The Declaration of Interdependence just came to my mind:
    1. increase return on investment
    2. deliver reliable results
    3. expect uncertainty
    4. unleash creativity and innovation
    5. boost performance
    6. improve effectiveness and reliability

  • VFQDev

    While we are at it, here are the ’25 principles underlying good practice’ from The Puritan Gift. Some will find these views controversial, and yet if they spend time understanding the viewpoint, you may find they agree.
    1) All successful organisations, however simple, consist of systems within a system
    2) All systems are nurtured by routines, which must be regularly reviewed and refreshed
    3) The most important sub-system in any organisation is the managerial hierarchy, which is likely to be based on some form of line and staff (interesting – worth understanding more)
    4) The best type of hierarchy is ‘bottom up’
    5) Leadership should be as far as possible be collective or ‘collegiate’
    6) The middle manager is the keystone of the managerial arch
    7) ‘One person, one boss’
    8) Meetings are ‘the medium of management work’
    9) ‘Integrated decision making’ (planning and execution) leads to right conclusions
    10) Planning should be for the short term (say one to four years), the medium term (say, five to eight years) and the long term (say, none years up)
    11) You should make a careful study of the mistakes and success of pioneers in your field – and learn from them
    12) Excellent internal communication in all directions – but above all upwards – and necessary in any successful organisation
    13) THe manager must be a leader in both a practical and moral sense
    14) You should use consultants (let me add Agile coaches) sparingly – and ‘strategic’ consultants never
    15) A manager should be aware of his responsibilities to society as a whole including to his company’s employees and human beings
    16) If it ain’t broke, you should try to make it work better
    17) Avoid debt like the plague, or, if that is impossible, use it sparingly
    18) A manager should possess or acquire what is now known as ‘domain knowledge’ i.e. a profound understanding of technology or business of his company, which can normally be gained only through a long apprenticeship in that company or in same industry
    19) The testing and training of managers should be pragmatic and continuous
    20) Managers who wish to reach the top should start at or near the bottom
    21) Job rotation is desireable to create the ’rounded’ executive
    22) Employment should in general be for the long term, by which is meant, at least, eight, and if possible ten years
    23) Complementarity is one of the keys to making appointments
    24) The renumeration system should promote and reward group effort
    25) Avoid ostentation like the plague
    Paul Dolman-Darrall, part of the Value, Flow, Quality Development Team

  • Glen B. Alleman

    Since none of the authors you suggest – all good reading BTW – have ever actually managed a company, how about some books from those who have successfully managed firms in practice as well as in principle:
    – Materials from the Jack Welsh Institute,
    – Larry Bossidy’s books on execution
    – The McKinsey Way
    – Materials from Booz Allen
    Or maybe look at the 100 best companies to work for to see how they are doing it?
    You might find actionable information through this route as well as the principles espoused by the books you have suggested.

  • Clemens Bindeus-Fischnaller

    Fredmund Malik, an Austrian economist with focus on (cybernetic) management defined back in 2000 (Book: “managing performing living“) a set of principles, task and tools for the effective manager:
    1. Focusing on results
    2. Contribution to the whole
    3. Concentration on a few things
    4. Utilizing strengths
    5. Trust
    6. Positive thinking
    1. Managing objectives
    2. Organizing
    3. Decision Making
    4. Supervising
    5. Developing people
    1. Meetings
    2. Reports
    3. Job design and assignment control
    4. Personal working methods
    5. The Budget and budgeting
    6. Performance Appraisal
    7. Systematic Waste Disposal
    Even though Malik uses “old school” terminology here, what he writes is far from being outdated.

  • Jurgen Appelo

    I have 15 years of practical experience as a manager.
    Steve Denning has 30 years of management experience.
    Thanks for the suggestions.

  • François Beauregard

    Hi Jurgen,
    Thanks for the article. An interesting model that is missing IMO is Peter Senge’s Learning Organization model.
    The disciplines are (extracted from wikipedia :
    1) “Personal mastery is a discipline of continually clarifying and deepening our personal vision, of focusing our energies, of developing patience, and of seeing reality objectively.” (p. 7)
    2) “Mental models are deeply ingrained assumptions, generalizations, or even pictures of images that influence how we understand the world and how we take action.” (p. 8)
    3) “Building shared vision a practice of unearthing shared pictures of the future that foster genuine commitment and enrollment rather than compliance.” (p. 9)
    4) “Team learning starts with dialogue, the capacity of members of a team to suspend assumptions and enter into genuine thinking together.” (p. 10)
    5) Systems thinking – The Fifth Discipline that integrates the other 4.

  • Glen B. Alleman

    We all have management experience in some form. But CEO’s of multi-billion firms have things to say about your quest as well.
    I have over 30 years experience in management as well, the last 15 as a VP in billion $ organizations, but I’d sure like to meet Welsch and Bossidy in person and hear what they have to say.
    “managing” has many different definitions and that of course is the issue with management books and people who write them.
    Manage what? GE, Monsanto, a start up, a 20 person firm, a 100 person firm, a 300,000 person firm, the Department of Defense?
    All good questions, awaiting your noble efforts…

  • Jurgen Appelo

    Indeed, it makes a difference. Just pointing out that “none of the authors have managed a company” was incorrect, and can be insulting to the authors.
    I once had a CEO of a 30-people company who had before been a CFO of a 5000-people company. I asked him, “What is harder, the big organization or the small one?” He said to me, “the small one is much harder”.

  • Glen B. Alleman

    I was thinking that since you asked for other books, your efforts may be informed by the conversation through books by “managers” who held the top job (CEO) and were accountable to the Board of Directors, stock holders for the performance of successful public traded firms in addition to the selected professors, consultants, and book authors who have not performed that role.
    My experience (also anecdotal) in smaller firms is similar, for the simple reason there are less resources, less capability pools, and many time less maturity in the processes. But your experience may differ.
    But regarding the actual CEO-style management experience of your selected books…
    Stephen Denning – he joined the World Bank where he worked for several decades in various management capacities, including Program Director of Knowledge Management from 1996-2000
    Henry Mintzberg – professor of management McGill.
    Gary Hamel – Wall Street Journal recently ranked him as the world’s most influential business thinker, and Fortune magazine has called him “the world’s leading expert on business strategy.”
    Deming – was an American statistician, professor, author, lecturer and consultant.
    All good authors with good advice, but not the field experience of hands on CEO “managing” a public firm. No insult intended, just a fact. So you might consider reviewing their resumes to see if they have that experience but not stated in their public background.
    Again, my words “managing a company,” in our vernacular means the CEO of the firm, where some form of external oversight is present.
    It might be useful for your meeting to define the target audience for your great efforts. Are they Fortune 500 firms or even Fortune 100 firms. Or some other sized firms? Since it sounds like you’re out to make significant change, the target might as well have the biggest impact as well on the largest population of “firms.”
    That may inform the conversation further and lead you to seek broader authors that have experience managing firms your have targeted.

  • Bernd Schiffer

    And don’t forget the four T’s, “the four essentials” of the autonomy, as Pink called them: task, time, technique and team.

  • Paul Boos

    While my Manifesto is targeted at Project Leadership, if any tidbit is helpful there, feel free to pull it in…
    Glen makes a good point in getting some insight from those managing a large Enterprise corporation. The only recommendation I don’t agree with him on is anything from Booz-Allen; I’found most of their stuff on the surface supports Agility, but they are perhaps the first to reverse and become cargo cult agile in my experience (from my viewpoint inside and outside the Govt). As a large consulting company though, I am certain there are pockets that are better than others.

  • Peter Hundermark

    I would add Dee Hock’s Chaordic Leadership model. He lists the most important responsiblities of leaders as:
    1. Manage self;
    2. Manage those who have authority over us;
    3. Manage our peers;
    4. Teach our subordinates to do the same!

  • Agile Management

    I read some of them books it is nice.
    Really it contains valuable information…
    Thanks for posting the list…

How to Change the World - free Workout - free